PRINCIPLES OF THE TARIQA

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The Hadra according to Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn Qayyim

The Hadra according to Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn Qayyim

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
و الصلاة و السلام على أشرف المرسلين
و على اله و اصحابه أجمعين

The Hadra is a specific characteristic of Sufi. It is the symbol of the Gathering of the Most Beautiful Names (asma’Allah ul-Husna) inside the letter “Ha” of the Name of Majesty “Allah”. For those who got their inner vision opened by the Kaf of “Kanaka tarah / as you were seeing Him”, It is the symbol of the eternal handful (qabda abadiya) manifested through the pre-eternal divine Beauty. For them, Malakoute became Mulk, and what was occulted became visible through awakening state vision. Due to this, they tasted the exquisite fragrance of Proximity (Qurb) and they felt the breeze of Fulfillment.

Mount Uhud shook out of Love under the steps of the Beloved ﷺ. It shook in response to the intensity of the Muhammadan Beauty, and that until the Messenger of Allah ﷺ has calmed it down.

Abu Hadid as-sa’idi reports, “We were coming back from the holy battle of Tabuk in the company of the Prophet ﷺ and when we arrived near Madinah, He said, “This is Taba and this is Uhud, this Mountain loves us and we love it” [1]. It is obvious that main reason of Mount Uhud tremor was only Love. Consequently, quivering and swaying are visible manifestation of Faith (Iman). In this sense a poet has said:

Do not hold it against Uhud because it shook
When he walked on it, this movement was a visible sign of Faith
And it was nothing more than a remedy
Uhud should not be reprimanded because it is a Lover
And Passion is never as intense as during the time of the beloved’s appointment

In reality, this movement was the expression of the Hurricane coming from the warmth of the desire to encounter Allah. This Hurricane is accompanied with hopping, tears, shivers and even with faint. Have you ever seen stones that fall down from heights because of fear of Allah?

Allah ﷻ says, “Then your hearts became hardened after that, being like stones or even harder. For indeed, there are stones from which rivers burst forth, and there are some of them that split open and water comes out, and there are some of them that fall down for fear of Allah. And Allah is not unaware of what you do.” [2]

As the different tones of voice are closely linked to the degrees of the Spirit, tremors and swaying are natural reaction to beautiful sounds, even for animals and minerals which have no Spirit. In reality, only the bodies that have no heart to fell the influx of deep meanings have no Spirit. Allah gave us an example in the Quran: “If We had sent down this Qur’an upon a mountain, you would have seen it humbled and coming apart from fear of Allah. And these examples We present to the people that perhaps they will give thought.” [3]

If the Quran was sent down upon a mountain it would have humbled and coming apart despite its strength, its rigidity, so what would be the heart state of sufi in such circumstances? In reality, it is not possible de contain the intense feeling of Proximity (Qurb). Thereon, Ibn Taymiyya wrote in his “Fatawi”:
“When Imam Ahmad have been questioned on this subject, he answered, “The Quran was being read in Yahia ibn Sa’id al-Qattan’s Presence when he fainted. And yet, if someone was able to push back that state, it would be Yahia ibn Sa’id, I have never met someone more reasonable than he.”

“We could also report that something similar happened to Imam Shafi’i, as forAli ibn al-Fudayl ibn Iyyad’s story which is well known. Lots of people we cannot doubt on.“ [4]

His pupil, ibn Qayyim also mentions the issue of “Hal” [5]:
There is a disagreement on the issue of Swaying (Tawajud), is it lawful or not? Scholar are divided into two groups. The first said that it was unlawful from a legal point of view because it was s considered as showing off with few natural. As for the other group, they said it was lawful from a legal point of view but only for those who are sincere and verily touched by the spiritual allusions. The Prophet ﷻ said, Weep, and if you cannot weep, then pretend to weep”

So it means that, on the one hand, he who sways to show off or to access something, or because he follows passions and Self, it is legally unlawful for him. On the other hand, if someone sways in order to cause or to trigger a spiritual state (Hal), then it is legally lawful and it depends on the person and what we know about his sincerity and Purity (Ikhlass) [6]

He also said “If swaying (tawajud) was allowed or recommended for all people of Dunia who are only guided by their passions, then no one would have ever tasted the savor and the joy of the gathering of the hearts with Allah…no one would have ever tasted the intense desire of His Encounter. Only the one who tasted it can understand, because only the one who saw shining in his inner what is shining in your inner can understand. May Allah grant he who said,

“O my friend, seest thou not their fire?
He answered: You see what I do not
The flame (of Love) quenched your thirst but not mine
And you were able to see in your heart what I cannot see.” [7]


[1] Hadith 4097, Sahih Bukhari
[2] Surah al-Baqarah, verse 74
[3] Surah al-Hashr, verse 21
[4] Majmu’at al-Fatawi, ibn Taymiyya
[5] Hal : spiritual state
[6] Madarij as-Salikine, Ibn Qayyim al Jawziyya
[7] Madarij as-Salikine, Ibn Qayyim al Jawziyya

The khalwa according to Koran and Sunna

The khalwa according to Koran and Sunna

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
و الصلاة و السلام على أشرف المرسلين
و على اله و اصحابه أجمعين

The khalwa according to Koran and Sunna

In the Arabic language:
The word khalwa designates the place in which the aspirant to inner purity (moutassawwif) withdraws with himself to devote to the worship of his Lord.
[al-Mu’jam al-‘arabiy al-asâsiy]

In the Tariqa Karkariya:
The word khalwa designates the fact to strictly stick to one’s own living tomb (the body), the individual stripping from all physical senses and the journey to the universe of Deep Senses, a journey whose provisions are the evocation of Divine name accompanied by an absolute dispossession, in order to penetrate the heart and reach the Lord’s Assize, until the veil lift up and the inner vision becomes piercing through the eternal Source.

In the Quran

“And He entrusted her to Zechariah. Every time he came to her in the Sanctuary, he found food near her. He said, “O Mary, where does this food come from?” “She said,” This is from Allah. ” He certainly gives food to whom He wills without counting.”
[Surah al-‘Imran, verse 37]

“And We gave Moussa a rendezvous for thirty nights, and We completed them by ten, so that the time fixed by his Lord ended at the end of forty nights.”
[Surat al-A’raf, verse 142]

“Do you think that the people of the Cavern and of ar-Raquim have constituted an extraordinary thing among Our prodigies? When the young people had taken refuge in the cave, they said, “O our Lord, give us a mercy coming from You; and assures us righteousness in all that concerns us.
[Surah the Cave, verses 10 and 9]

“So he went forth out of the sanctuary to his people; then he motioned them to pray morning and evening.”
[Surah Maryam, verse 11]

In the Hadith

It is reported that ‘Aisha the mother of the believers said, “The first thing by which the Messenger of Allah ﷺ began to receive the revelation was the pious vision during his sleep: he was not seeing something without it being systematically accomplished. Then he began to enjoy solitude, and he set out to isolate himself (kana yakhlou) in the cave of Hira, where he undertook to perform acts of worship for several consecutive nights without returning home. He had provided himself with food and when his provisions were exhausted, he returned to Khadidja and took the necessary steps for a new retreat. This situation lasted until the day when the truth was revealed to him in this cave of Hira.

“The angel (Djibril-Gabriel) visited him and said to him:

– Iqra! (Read! Recite!)

“I am not one of those who know how to read,” replied the Prophet. “The angel wound me to the point of losing consciousness,” says the Prophet, and then renewed his injunction:

– Read !

“I am not one of those who know how to read. He grabbed me a second time and wound me to the point of losing my strength and then released me saying:

– Read !

“I am not one of those who know how to read!” I said to him again. He hugged me a third time and then loosened his hug by reciting:

– Read ! in the Name of your Lord who created. He created the man from an embryo. Read ! Your Lord is the Very Generous. “(Quran 96: 1-3).

With a trembling heart, and in possession of these verses, the Prophet rushed to Khadidja Bint Khowalid (his wife), exclaiming, “Cover me! Cover me! he was wrapped up until the disappearance of his trouble. He informed Khadidja of his adventure and added: “I have been afraid for my life. “No,” replied Khadidja, “God will never torment you, for you are in solidarity with yours, you defend the weak, you give to those who are deprived, you welcome the hosts and you assist those who are victims of injustice.

Then Khadidja accompanied him to Waraqa Ben Naufal, his paternal cousin, who had converted to Christianity at the time of the djahiliya (pre-Islamic). The latter knew how to write Hebrew and transcribed in this language, what God had allowed of the Gospel. Waraqa was of an advanced age and lost sight. Khadidja said to him:
“Oh, my cousin, listen to what your brother’s son has to say to you.
“O son of my brother, what do you want?” asked Waraqa. The Prophet told him his story and what he had seen.
“It is the Namous (God’s Confidant or the angel Gabriel) whom God has already sent to Moussa,” replied Waraqa. What a pity I am no longer young! How I wish to live when your compatriots will drive you away!
“How,” exclaimed the Prophet, “will my compatriots reject me?
“Yes,” replied Waraqa, “no man brought anything similar without being oppressed. If I still live at that moment, I will bring you all my assistance. Some time later Waraqa died and the Revelation was suspended.”
[Saheeh al-Bukhariy, hadith 6497]

Ibn Mas’ud (radiAllahu ‘anhu) reports: “The Messenger of Allah ﷺ, and he is the truthful one worthy of being believed, made this speech to us:” We dedicate forty days to the creation of one of you in the womb of his mother to make of him a drop of liquid. Then we make of him a mass hanging in the same period. Then we make of him a bowl of chewing in the same period. Then we sent to him the Angel who breathes in him the spirit and we predetermines for him four things: his subsistence, the duration of his life, the value of his work and his predestination either in hell or in paradise. By Him outside whom there is no god, one of you certainly does the work of people destined for Paradise until there is only one cubit left between him and Paradise and now his predestination precedes him, he then commits an act of what the people of Hell do and he enters. And one of you certainly does the work of the people dedicated to Hell until there is only one cubit left between him and Hell and now his predestination is ahead, he then makes an act of what the people of Paradise do and he enters.”
[Unanimously recognized as authentic]

According to Anas ibn Mālik, the Messenger of Allâh ﷺ said:
“Ask (in your invocations) what is best for yourselves, and prepare to receive the breaths of the Divine Mercy, for Allah certainly has breaths of His Mercy, which He gives to who He wants among His servants, and ask Allah to cover up your modesty and ensure the tranquility of those under your care.
[Chu’ab al-Imân – al-Bayhaqi, Hadîth No. 1081]

According to Abu Ayyub al-Ansâriy, the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ said:
“Whoever dedicates forty days exclusively to Allâh will see the sources of Wisdom appearing on his tongue”

The Hadra according to Koran and Sunna

The Hadra according to Koran and Sunna

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
و الصلاة و السلام على أشرف المرسلين
و على اله و اصحابه أجمعين

The Hadra according to Koran and Sunna

From a linguistic point of view, the word Hadra refers to the notion of presence, of proximity to a thing. As for the word raqs (dance), it is said of someone who dances when the latter is agitated and moves his body to the rhythm of a music or song. In the tariqa karkariya: This is the Chu’aibiy heart, which grouping all the apparent things of the universe as well as the deep human truths (Haqâ’iq) through vision, divine proximity (al-qurb) and unveiling (kachf) of what covers the reality of the secret and this thanks to the pre-eternals Lights (anwar ul-qidam).

The Hadra in the Koran:

“Those who, standing or siting, lying down on their sides, invoke Allah and meditate on the creation of the heavens and the earth (saying):” Our Lord! You did not create that in vain. Glory to You! Keep us from the chastisement of the Fire.”
[Surah Al-Imran, verse 191]

“When you have performed the Ṣalāt, invoke the name of Allah, standing, sitting or lying on your sides. Then when you are safe, perform the Ṣalāt (normally), for the Ṣalāt remains a prescription for believers at certain times.”
[Surah an-Nisā ‘, verse 103]

“If We had sent down this Koran on a mountain, you would have seen it humble itself and split for fear of Allah. And these parables We give them to the people so that they reflect.”
[Surah al-Hashr, verse 21]

The Hadra in the Hadith:

According to Anas (radiAllahu anhu): The Habashas was dancing before the Messenger of Allah ﷺ saying: “Muhammadun ‘abdun sālih: Muhammad is a pious servitor”. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ then said, “What do they say?” he was answered, “They say, Muhammad is a pious servant”
[Musnad, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Hadîth: 12303]

Sayidunâ Aliy (radiAllahu anhu) reports: “I visited the Prophet ﷺ with Ja’far (ibn Abi Talib) and Zayd (ibn Haritha). The Prophet ﷺ said to Zayd, “You are my freedman (anta mawlay),” and Zayd began to skip on one foot around the Prophet ﷺ. The Prophet said to Ja’far, “You are like me in my constitution and in my character,” and Ja’far began to skip behind Zayd. The Prophet ﷺ then said to me: “You are part of me and I am part of you” and I started to jump behind Ja’far.”
[Musnad, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Hadith: 835]

In a long hadîth reported by sayidinâ ibn ‘Abbâs (radiAllâhu’ anhumâ), ‘Aliy ibn Abiy Tâlib, Ja’far and Zayd ibn Hâritha (radiAllâhu’ anhum) one day disagreed about which of them would be the most entitled to receive the office of a woman whom Sayiduna ‘Aliy had withdrawn from the hands of the mouchrikin of Mecca … The Messenger of Allah ﷺ, who was there, therefore cut off between them in favor of sayidinā Ja’far. Muhammad ibn ‘Umar al-Waqidiy said, “And when he ﷺ decided in favor of Ja’far, the latter stood up and began to jump on one foot around the Messenger of Allah ﷺ. He asked him, “What are you doing, Ja’far?” He replied: “O Messenger of Allah, when the Najachiy filled a person, the latter was rising and hopped on one foot around him.” The Prophet then said, “Marry you with her”. He replied, “This is the daughter of my brother of milk…” The Messenger of Allah ﷺ therefore married him to Salma ibn Abiy Salma.”
[Dala’il al-Nubouwa, al-Bayhaqiy, Hadith 1710]

According to Abiy Qatâdah, Anas ibn Mālik (radiAllâhu ‘anhu) told them that the Prophet ﷺ went up on Uhud mountain with Abiy Bakr, Omar and Othmân and the latter began to shudder. (rajafa, in Arabic: to be seized by a shudder caused by a feeling). The Prophet ﷺ said to it, “Remains motionless Uhud, for there is a Prophet, a Siddīq, and two Shahīd on you.”
[Sahih al-Bukhâriy, Hadîth 3423]

‘AbduLlâh ibn’ Umar (radiallahu ‘anhumd) reports that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said from the top of the minbar: “Al-Jabbār takes in His hand His heavens and His earths” Prophet made the gesture of closing his fist and opening it, after which he said, “I am al-Jabbâr! I’m al-Malik! where are the jabbâroûn? where are the moutakabbiroûn? And saying this, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ swayed from right to left. I watched the minbar and saw it moving as well, to the point that I wondered if it had not fallen with the Messenger of Allah ﷺ.”
[Sunan ibn Mâjah, kitâb az-zuhd, Hadîth 4273]

Sayidunâ ‘Aliy (karramAllahu wajhah) said, describing the companions of the Prophet ﷺ: “I have seen the companions of the Messenger of Allah, and I see no one today who is comparable to them : By Allah when morning rose on them, their faces were pale, their hair disheveled and their bodies covered with dust. Between their eyes was the mark of their prostrations, after they had spent the whole night reciting the Book of Allah oscillating back and forth, invoking Allah by swinging as the tree swings in a strong wind day. By Allah, and their eyes filled with tears until they wet their clothes.”
[Huliyat ul-‘Awliya ‘, Abu Na’im: 118/1]

Say “Allah”!

Say

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
و الصلاة و السلام على أشرف المرسلين
و على اله و اصحابه أجمعين

Say “Allah”!

Allah ﷻ says: “Say, ” Allah”. Then leave them prattling in their vain talk.” [Surah al-An’am, verse 91]

Sayiduna Ahmad ibn Ajiba commented this verse in his tafsir:
“The Sufi’s used [the expression] “say Allah”, in terms of indications understood (by them), to insist on the removal and the detachment of everything for Allah, as well as the nonconsideration of all the futile things on which common people worry. It means leaving those things in order to reach the station (maqam) of purity which is the spiritual degree of the divine Oneness perception and also the spiritual degree of the retreat at the heart of His secret.

Ibn ‘Ata Allah al-Iskandari said about the people of contemplation (ahlul Shudud):
“for they belong to God (Lillah) and to nothing apart from Him. “Say: Allah! Then leave them prattling in their vain talk.” They can be denied by those who do not understand their words, those who do not have a particular sensitivity in the heart which would allow them to understand an exoteric meaning as well as an esoteric meaning which is only understood by the people of Allah (al Rabbaniyoun).”
[tafsir al-Bahr ul-Madid fi tafsir il-Qur’ân il-Majîd]

By taking into consideration what is only One, the « second » cannot exist, because in accordance with the Haqiqa, nothing exists but The One who is at the origin of Existence. Allah is now as He ever was, and nothing exists but Him. The created things are only ephemeral shadows which do not persist and thus which do not exist, except in our poor understanding. And if the contrary was correct, then those things living besides Allah would contradict the verse “everything must perish, except His Face” [surah al-Qasas, verse 88], it means that everything is ephemeral and without existence besides His Face, in other words, besides his Essence. All the essences are in reality nil and they have no part in Existence, either now or in the past or in the future, they are as the dust grain in wind.

Abu Huraira (radiAllahu ‘anhu) reported the Messenger of Allah ﷺ saying:
“The truest word uttered by a poet is this verse of Labid: “Behold! Apart from Allah everything is vain.””
[Sahih Muslim, Hadith 4194]

A poet also said:

Four letters by which my heart gained in Passion
By which my thought and my worries have been dispelled
An Alif which reconciled the Creation with itself
And a Lam by the blame.
Then (another) Lam adding deep meanings
And then a ha in which I fell in love and I Know

And we can read in the Aphorism (Hikam):

How can it be conceived that something veils Him,
since He is the One who manifests everything?
How can it be conceived that something veils Him
since He is the one who is manifest through everything?
How can it be conceived that something veils Him,
since He is the One who is manifest in everything?
How can it be conceived that something veils Him,
since He is the Manifest to everything?
How can it be conceived that something veils Him,
since He was the Manifest before the existence of anything?
How can it be conceived that something veils Him,
since He is more manifest than anything?
How can it be conceived that something veils Him,
since He is the One alongside of whom there is nothing?
How can it be conceived that something veils Him,
since He is nearer to you than anything else?
How can it be conceived that something veils Him,
since, were it not for Him,
the existence of everything would not have been manifest?
What a strange thing, how could the existence come from nothing? In other words, how can be settled in the same time what is by definition uncreated and what is created

And we add:

How can it be conceived that something veils Him since nothing is like Him?

And Sayiduna Abu Maydan al-Gath (qudissa sirruh) said:

Say Allah! and leave existence and all it contains
if your aspiration is to reach completeness
For everything other than Allah, if you verify its truth
is nothingness, in its detail and in its totality and summation
And know that you, and all the worlds
if it were not for Him, would have been eliminated, fading and disappearing
He who does not exist because of himself by cause of himself
then his existence without Him is utter impossibility
The gnostics faded and did not witness
anything except The Supreme in Greatness, The Majestic, The Most Exalted
and they saw everything else other than Him in its truth as perishing
either immediately, in the past, and in the future to come
So glimpse with your mind or with your sight: do you see
anything other than an act from among the acts?
And look at the height of existence and at its base
with a sight that you support by reasoning and interpretation,
you find everything pointing towards His Majesty
with what it displays by its status or by its words
while He is holding everything from its top to
its bottom, and creating them, without a similar or an equal

Imam al Baqili (rahimahuLlah) said in his tafsir of the Quran:
Allah ﷻ says: everyone upon the earth will perish, and there will remain the Face of your Lord, Owner of Majesty and Honor.” [Surah al-Rahman, verse 26/27]

If we consider the universe and its people through the eye of Haqiqa (Truth), we understand its nonexistent nature. Although if we only consider them at first sight, one might be induced to think the opposite. Indeed, in the Haqiqa, something which needs another thing to exist is by definition nonexistent. The word “Existence” is only used for the Self-Existing being, and this is why we only assign Existence to Allah. How someone who began to exist in a specified time could claim Existing by Himself while He is nothing else but nil?

The true Existence is the pre-eternal Existence, and this is why Allah ﷻ says: “and there will remain the Face of your Lord, Owner of Majesty and Honor” [surah al-Rahman, verse 27], and the reality of what is called “al-baqa” in Arabic is only assigned to what exists from eternity which means in the pre-eternity and in the post-eternity. He whose beginning is nil and whose end is nil, his existence is indeed totally different from He who is beginless and endless. When we perceive a divine manifestation, we can understand that the Divinity is existing by Himself while we also understand that the creation only exists through Him. It is at this point that we access to the reality of what is nil (fana) and of what is eternal (baqa)… of what is the Existence (Wujud) and of what is the nonexistence (‘Adam).

Allah ﷻ gave to his creation the capacity to know His pre-eternity and His post-eternity through the nonexistent and ephemeral nature of this lowly world. And this is because he who enters in the post-eternity (baqa) without being totally annihilated in the Self-Existing, he did not enter effectively in the real state of baqa.

Imam al-Junayd has been asked on the verse: everyone upon the earth will perish”, and he answered: “He who is between the two nonexistence is himself nonexistent.”

[tafsîr ‘ara`is ul-bayan fî Haqâ`iq il-Qur`ân]

And sayiduna Ibn ‘Ata Allah al-Iskandari (qudissa sirruh) said:
“By His divine grace, Allah wanted to manifest His supreme Knowledge and His Power through His Name, as far as people can support the Spirits of His creation, and this to ensure that people can be linked to Him. By His divine grace, He assigned a particular predisposition to his creation allowing His creatures to see what they can see in terms of theophany’s. All spirits have testified of themselves when their Lords told them: “Am I not your Lord?” and they all answered: “yes we have testified” [surah al ‘araf, verse 172]. After He created them and gave them existence, Allah then made them testify of themselves once more in this lowly world manifesting for them among all his Names, His Greatest Name (“Allah”), allowing them to Know it, facilitating its remembrance with the tongue and facilitating its access through its manifestation in the eternal word: “Bismillah r-Rahmani r-Rahim = In the Name of Allah, the most beneficent, the Most Merciful”.

Then, His Manifestation became so clear and so strong that He became hidden, in a such way that nothing would never be able to describe Him. And His evocation became so abundant that He was forgotten, in a such way that he is no more Known. He is the one who shapes the harmony between things. And His evocation transforms what was difficult to something easy. Through His evocation, the needs are satisfied as well as what concerns minds and we also begin all our deeds with His mention.

He whose heavens and earth could not contain Him, nor His Throne and His ‘Arsh. But the heart of his honored and predestined servants were able to contain Him, in accordance with the predisposition of each and their degrees of worship…then, He unveiled for them His Secret”
[al-Qasd ul-Mujarrad fi Ma’rifat il-Ism il-Moufrad]

The legal status of dhikr with the Ism al Mufrad (Allah)

The legal status of dhikr with the Ism al Mufrad (Allah)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
و الصلاة و السلام على أشرف المرسلين
و على اله و اصحابه أجمعين

First of all, nothing forbid us to do dhikr with the Name “Allah” neither in Allah’s book nor in the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ. Another argument is the fact that the companions did not practice this kind of dhikr. No one can prove this because nobody knows how they performed their spiritual retreat and what kind of invocations and supplications they used to practice and the reality of their spiritual state except their Lord. It is narrated that Abu Huraira said: “I have memorized from the Messenger of Allah two containers: As for the first one, then I have relayed it; as for the other, if I were to convey it, this pharynx (throat) would get cut.” [Sahih Bukhari]

It is totally inconceivable to think that Companions refused to give a certain knowledge or to think that they hid it. They propagated Knowledge within people using their words in accordance with the well-known hadith: “Speak to the people according to their level of knowledge”. They propagated the degree of Islam to the people of Islam, they propagated the degree of Iman to the people of Iman, and they propagated the degree of Ihsan to the people of Ihsan, and the main reason is to avoid the rejection of Allah and His Messenger ﷺ by people.

Sayiduna Abu Huraira (radiAllahu ‘anhu) propagated the container of the exoteric knowledge (dhahir) to exoteric people, those who only consider the external meanings and he also propagated the container of the esoteric knowledge (batin) to the esoteric people, those who dive into the hidden meanings of faith. Allah ﷻ says: “Do you not see that Allah has made subject to you whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth and amply bestowed upon you His favors, [both] apparent and unapparent? But of the people is he who disputes about Allah without knowledge or guidance or an enlightening Book [from Him].” [Surah Luqman, verse 20]

So there are visible and hidden favors, and the greatest favor is beyond any doubt that Allah has guided us to his Faith. Regarding the claim that the Law (shari’a) orders Muslims to practice specific kind of dhikr with complete spell having a specific meaning and the claim that the Name of Allah would just be an isolated word and an expression which do not lead to meanings and knowledge’s, we can consider the following hadith: “Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with) reported: The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, “Allah the Exalted says: I am as my slave expects me to be, and I am with him when he remembers Me. If he remembers Me inwardly, I will remember him inwardly, and if he remembers Me in an assembly, I will remember him in a better assembly. And if he comes one span nearer to me, I go one cubit nearer to him; and if he comes one cubit nearer to Me, I go a distance of two outstretched arms nearer to him; and if he comes to Me walking, I go to him running.” [Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 6883]

He who practices dhikr with the Ism Al-Mufrad “Allah”, he in fact only mentions Allah, among people or alone and the Lord knows the intention of His servant. Is it acceptable to think that the validity of Dhikr Allah only depends on the use of a specific number of Arabic words which should be properly conjugated and which should have a clear meaning? How, therefore, people who do not speak Arabic would do? How those who do not master grammar rules would do? How would mute people do?

May our Lord be glorified, for whom sounds and voices do not mix, He who never confuses tongues, He knows with His Pre-eternal Knowledge which comprehends everything the intention and the wish of each. The dhikr followed by deep thought is not limited by the validity of the expression nor by grammar rules but on the contrary, it is based on the purity of the primordial human nature.

We also consider the dhikr with the Name “Allah” as an apostrophe which had its grammar characteristic removed. It is like saying that he who practices this kind of dhikr, says in reality “ Ya Allah/ O Allah”. And the proof of this expression validity is the Koranic verse: “Joseph, Ignore this” [surah Yussuf/ verse 29]. In Arabic the meaning of this verse is “Ya Yussuf/O Yussuf”. Furthermore, when Sayiduna Bilal (radiAllahu ‘anhu) was tortured by Umayya ibn Khalaf, under the burning sun, he said: “Ahad, Ahad/ One! One!” and the Prophet ﷺ did not forbid that, on the contrary, He corroborated it.

It has been said that someone went to meet Imam al-Shibli and he told him:

“O Abu Bakr, why do you say Allah instead of “La ilaha illa Allah”?
Al-Shibli answered: “I do not deny Him by other than Him”
The man said: “tell me more, O Abu Bakr”
He answered: “My tongue cannot pronounce words of apostasy”
The man repeated: “tell me more, O Abu Bakr”
And Al-Shibli answered: “Say, “Allah” and then leave them.”

The man uttered a cry, then he died. His body was lying on ground lifeless. His companions turned against al-Shibli and they went to complain to the caliph, claiming he was responsible for the death of the man. The Caliph sent a letter to Al-Shibli in which he asked him his version of events. He answered that it was a soul whining because of an intense Love and that Allah called him back and he answered to the call, what is being reproached it?

When the Caliph heard the words of al-Shibli, he cried out and said: “leave him alone, he did nothing wrong”.  [tafsir ‘ara`is il-bayan fi tafsir il-Qur`ân// Imâm al-Baqilli]

And Imam Muslim narrated in his Sahih, a hadith which cannot be clearer about the dhikr with the Ism al-Mufrad, when the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said : “The Hour will not occur as long as anyone says, “Allah ! Allah!”” [Sahih Muslim, hadith 216].

The Ism in the Qoran and the Sunna

The Ism in the Qoran and the Sunna

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
و الصلاة و السلام على أشرف المرسلين
و على اله و اصحابه أجمعين

Meaning

Al-Ism: word or expression which permits to recognize someone or something
[al-Mou’jam al-‘Arabiy al-Assâssiy. P644]

Meaning in the Tariqa Karkariya

It is the visible expression of The One who is Named. The Name (Al Ism) is the basis of all His Names and in the same time it gathers them together. It is the founding principle of all the meanings and their secrets. When the Name is pronounced, He is never separated from The One who is Named. Without implying that the Named One should be the Name nor something else than the Name itself, but rather The Name (al Ism) is the guide and the way to the different degrees of the Existence and this through the Divine Essence.

In The Quran

The word Al Ism has been quoted 71 times in the Koran, among the quoted verses :

Allah ﷻ says: And who are more unjust than those who prevent the name of Allah from being mentioned in His mosques and strive toward their destruction.”
[surah al-Baqara, verse 114]

Allah ﷻ says: So eat of that [meat] upon which the name of Allah has been mentioned, if you are believers in His verses.
[surah al-An’âm, verse 118]

Allâh ﷻ says: That they may witness benefits for themselves and mention the name of Allah on known days over what He has provided for them of [sacrificial] animals. So eat of them and feed the miserable and poor.”
[surah al-Hajj, verse 28]

Allah ﷻ says: “Those who, when Allah is mentioned, their hearts are fearful, and [to] the patient over what has afflicted them, and the establishers of prayer and those who spend from what We have provided them.”
[surah al-Hajj, verse 35]

Allah ﷻ says: “And were it not that Allah checks the people, some by means of others, there would have been demolished monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques in which the name of Allah is much mentioned.
[surah al-Hajj, verse 40]

Allah ﷻ says: in mosques which Allah has ordered to be raised and that His name be mentioned therein; exalting Him within them in the morning and the evenings.”
[surah al-Nur, verse 36]

Allah ﷻ says: glorify with praises the Name of your Lord, the Most Glorified.
[surah al-Waqi’a, verse 74]

Allah ﷻ says: And remember the name of your Lord and devote yourself to Him with [complete] devotion.
[suraj al Muzzamil, verse 8]

Allah ﷻ says: And mention the name of your Lord [in prayer] morning and evening.”
[surah al-Insan, verse 25]

Allah ﷻ says:Exalt the name of your Lord, the Most High.
[surah al a’la, verse 1]

Allah ﷻ says: Recite in the name of your Lord who created.
[surah al-‘Alaq, verse 1]

In the Hadith

It is narrated on the authority of Anas that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: “The Hour (Resurrection) will not occur as long as anyone says: “Allah, Allah.””
[Sahîh Muslim, 216]

It is narrated on the authority of Anas that the Messenger of Allah said: “The Hour (Resurrection) will not occur as long as anyone says: “Allah, Allah.””
[Sahîh Muslim, 215]

It is narrated on the authority of Anas that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: “The Hour (Resurrection) will not occur as long as anyone says: “Allah, Allah” and as long as a woman will not walk with shoes saying: “they belonged to a man” and as long as there are not fifty women for every man and as long as the rain coming for the sky will [continue] to provoke the sprounting of plants on hearth.”
[Hadith sahih according to imam Bukhari and imam Muslim]

Abdullah ibn Mughaffar narrated that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: “Allah! Allah regarding my Companions! Do not make them objects of insults after me. Whoever loves them, it is out of love of me that he loves them. And whoever hates them, it is out of hatred for me that he hates them. And whoever harms them, he has harmed me, and whoever harms me, he has offended Allah, and whoever offends Allah, [then] he shall soon be punished.”
[Jami’ Tirmidhi, 3827]

The Muraqa’a in the Quran and Sunna

The Muraqa’a in the Quran and Sunna

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
و الصلاة و السلام على أشرف المرسلين
و على اله و اصحابه أجمعين

In the arabic language

We say in arabic “Raqqa’a athawb” which means “he patched his clothes”
Al Muraqqa’at is the plural form of the word “muraqqa’a” which refers to the clothes with colored pieces of tissue made of wool or fur or leather.
[Shaykh Ahmad ibn ‘Ajiba, al futuhat al ilahiya fi charhi l mabahithi al Asliya].

In the Tariqa Karkariya

It is the externalization and the way to be dressed by the the Beauty of the hidden Essence through the manifestation of the different divine names by the colors of a noble and high rainbow.

It is the sign of the pact between the ego (nafs) and the Spirit for the purpose of entering and ascending the different levels.

In the Holy Quran

“And when they tasted of the tree, their private parts became apparent to them, and they began to fasten together over themselves from the leaves of Paradise.”
[surah al ‘araf, verse 22].

“O children of Adam, We have bestowed upon you clothing to conceal your private parts and as adornment. But the clothing of righteousness – that is best.”
[surah al ‘araf, verse 26].

“O children of Adam, let not Satan tempt you as he removed your parents from Paradise, stripping them of their clothing to show them their private parts.”
[surah al ‘araf, verse 27].

“And it is He who has made the night for you as clothing and sleep [a means for] rest and has made the day a resurrection”
[surah al Furqan, verse 47].

In the Sunna

Narrated by Abu Burda:‘Aisha brought out to us a patched wool Len garment, and she said: “(It chanced that) the soul of Allah’s Messenger ﷺ was taken away while he was wearing this.”
Abu-Burda added: “Aisha brought out to us a thick waist sheet like the ones made by the Yemenites, and also a garment of the type called Al-Mulabbada.”
[sahih Bukhari, 2894.].

Narrated by Um Khalid bint Khalid: “the Prophet ﷺ was given some clothes including a black Khamisa. The Prophet ﷺ said: “To whom shall we give this to wear?” The people kept silent whereupon the Prophet ﷺ said: “Fetch Um Khalid for me.” I (Um Khalid) was brought carried (as I was small girl at that time). The Prophet ﷺ took the Khamisa in his hands and made me wear it and said: “May you live so long that your dress will wear out and you will mend it many times.” On the Khamisa there were some green or pale designs (The Prophet ﷺ saw these designs) and said: “O Um Khalid! This is Sanah.” (Sanah in a Ethiopian word meaning beautiful).
[sahih Bukhari, 5425.].

The Prophet ﷺ was given some clothes including a black Khamisa. The Prophet ﷺ said: “To whom shall we give this to wear?” The people kept silent whereupon the Prophet ﷺ said: “Fetch Um Khalid for me.” I (Um Khalid) was brought carried (as I was small girl at that time). The Prophet ﷺ took the Khamisa in his hands and made me wear it and said: “May you live so long that your dress will wear out and you will mend it many times.” On the Khamisa there were some green or pale designs (The Prophet ﷺ saw these designs) and said, “O Um Khalid! This is Sanah.” (Sanah in a Ethiopian word meaning beautiful).
[sahih Bukhari, 5403.].

It was narrated from Mu’adh bin Jabal that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: “Shall I not tell you about the kings of Paradise?” I said: “Yes.” He said: “A weak and oppressed man who wears tattered clothes and is not paid any heed. If he swears (an oath) by Allah, Allah fulfills it.”
[Sunan ibn Majah, 4113.].

ibn Kiyssan reports:
“Abdullah ibn Abi ‘Umama relates that the Messenger of Allah  said: “Al badhadha is part of faith, al badhadha is part of faith, al badhadha is part of faith” and Abdullah says: “i asked my father: “what is al badhadha?” he answered: “it means wearing modest clothings”“.
[Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, zuhd 29].

Umm Khalid relates that the Prophet came wearing a clothing with a patched fabric on it, and he said: “who could I dress with this clothing” all the companions became silent. Then Allah’s Messenger  said: “bring here Umm Khalid”. I came and he clothed me with his hand, then he said two times: “abli wa akhlaqi” while he was looking at the a yellow and red piece of tissue. He said: “O Umm Khalid, this is Sana”. (sana means “something good” in ethiopian language).
[Al Mustadrak ‘Ala Sahihayn, 2304.].

The piety clothing

The piety clothing

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
و الصلاة و السلام على أشرف المرسلين
و على اله و اصحابه أجمعين

Allah ﷻ says: “O children of Adam, We have bestowed upon you the clothing to conceal your nudity and as adornment. But the clothing of righteousness; that is best. That is from the signs of Allah that perhaps they will remember”.
[surah al a’raf, verse 26].

Imam al Baqili (rahimahu Allah) said in his tafsir:
“Each group has its own clothing. The Knowers (‘arifun) wear the Knowledge clothing. The Lovers (Muhhibun) dress the Love clothing. Those who are nostalgic (muchtaqun) wear the clothing of the divine nostalgia. The monotheists(muwahhidoun) who fulfiled the Tawhid, wear the monotheism clothing. The ascetics (zahidun) wear the asceticism clothing. Those who fear Allah (mouttaqqun) wear the piety clothing (Taqwa); the Saints wear the sainthood clothing; the Prophets wear the prophecy clothing and finally the Messengers wear the clothing of those who bring of a divine revelation. Each of those clothings have hidden and visible part. The hidden part is made beautiful for the Divine Look while the visible (external) part is made beautiful to be the shelf of the Divine Law (shari’a).

In each clothing, there is a part for mankind but the piety clothing has no part for ego (nafs). The common clothings are for common people, while the divine clothings are for those who were extinguished in Allah and were dressed with His Attributes. And All clothings always finish by extinguishing itself in the divine clothing.

This is why the Messenger of Allah ﷺ makes reference to His Maqam which gives Him the right to dress the Attributes of Allah and His Light, in the hadith: “He who saw me, he has seen the True One (al Haqq).”

The words youwariy saw’atikum [to conceal your private parts] show that according to the reality of the preeternal Lights, we are all undressed as it would be for your carnal envelope if you do not cover up. It is therefore appropriate that you cover up your carnal enveloppe with the preeternal clothing, your ignorance with the Knowledge clothing and your state of servitude with the Seigneury clothing.

Imam al Wasiti (rahimahu Allah) said that the word saw’ah which is translated as “Nudity”, refers to ignorance and the words “as adornment” refer to the servant who dresses the piety clothing, because the piety clothing is a protection against the ruse of The Jealous One. Taqwa is the clothing of the heart and its sign is the virtue. Taqwa is the Adab, the good manners regarding Allah, which is seeing nothing except Allah.

Some people said that the clothing of good guidance is for common people, while the piety clothing is for the elite. The clothing of divine fear (hayba) is for the the Knowers (‘arifun), the refined clothings are for the people of this lowly world (duniya), the clothings of The great Meeting and of the Vision are for the Saints, and the clothings of the divine Presence (hadra) are for the Prophets.

Al Ustadh said that the clothing of the heart is the piety clothing, which indicates the sincerity of the intention of the person through the total abandonment of all worldy (society) desire. The clothing of the soul is a sanctified clothing (taqdis) which consists of leaving and erasing ererything connecting us with this lowly world. The clothing of the Secret (sirr) is made of piety (liban min al Taqwa) which is deniying any cohabitation or existence besides Allah and remembering Him continuously.”

[Tafsir ‘aimra’is al bayan fi haqa’iq el Quran / Imam Baqili]

Choose the dress you want to wear in accordance with your divine aspiration, with your Love for Him, with your Proximity with Him and watch out to pay attention to common people: the contenment of the creatures is totally unattainable. Choose what is lasting over what is destined to disappear. Prefer truth to falsehood. The Muraqqa’a is the heritage of our father Adam (‘alayhi salam), it is the basis and the origin of all clothing. It is the first clothing he wore.

Sayiduna ibn ‘Ajiba (qadassa Allah sirruh) said in his Tafsir about this verse:
“And when they tasted of the tree, their private parts became apparent to them, and they began to fasten together over themselves from the leaves of Paradise.”
[surah al ‘araf, verse 22].

They stitched together the leaves on top of each other to cover up their nudity. It is said that it was leaves coming from a fig tree. Adam (alaihi salam) is the first man who wore the Muraqqa’a.

[tafsir al bahr al madid fi tafsir ilQur’an al Majid]

Furthermore, the Muraqqa’a takes away the one who wears it from places and things which cause Lord’s anger. The Muraqqa’a is for the mureed as fervor and enthusiasm are for the ill person looking for recovery. It prevents the one who is wearing it to enter in places where people give themselves over to their passions, where people are distracted from Allah. So it prevents he who is wearing it to stay with people talking about pointless things.

The Muraqqa’a is the emblem of he who follows the good way and ‘AbdulLah ibn Sarjas al Mazaniy narrates that the Prophet ﷺ said: “Good way, continence and good orientation are one of the eighty parts of Prophecy”.
[Jami’ Tirmidhi, hadith n°1930].

“good way” can have a lot meanings in this hadith.One of those meanings is to allow you to resemble and to follow good and pious people.

What a great Honor to serve one of the ninty parts of Prophecy, to be in this way linked to one part of the blessed words of Tawhid and to be affiliated to one letter of La Ilaha ila Allah, Muhammadan Rassulu Allah which is composed of twenty four letters.

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ wore all the colors. So, Apply yourself and gather on you the sunnah of the Beloved! O you who want His companionship, He will only come to you by you, so stand up and walk to Him. Stop to dither.

Ibn ‘Ata ilLah al Iskandari (radiAllah ‘anhu) said in one of his Hikam: “If you were to be united with Him only after the extinction of your vices and the effacement of your pretensions, you would never be united with Him! Instead, when He wants to unite you to Himself, He covers your attribute with His Attribute and hides your quality with His Quality. And thus He unites you to Himself by virtue of what comes from Him to you, not by virtue of what goes from you to Him.”

So Cover your attributes with His Attributes, cover your ignorance with His Knowledge, cover your debasement with His Honor and Greatness, cover your non existence with His Existence. Cover your darknesses with the Lights of his Attributes, manifested through the colors which compose the Muraqqa’a. In this way, You will access to His proximity and you will reach His Contenment.

The Muraqa’a of Sayiduna Umar (ra)

The Muraqa'a of Sayiduna Umar (ra)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
و الصلاة و السلام على أشرف المرسلين
و على اله و اصحابه أجمعين

Sayiduna Umar ibn al-Khattab (radiAllah ‘anhu) did not conquer the city of the Isra (Jerusalem) with a great army nor with a beautiful and strong mount. Quite the contrary, He crossed dangerous places and deserts wearing a Muraqqa’a and he was only accompanied by a servant and by his modest mount. They were reciting together Surah Ya-sin. Sometimes Umar (radiAllah ‘anhu) would ride the animal and sometimes it was the turn of his servant, sometimes they would let the donkey have a rest. With this expedition, Al-Farooq (radiAllah ‘anhu) gave a lesson for those who reflect.

On his arrival in the camp of the muslim army, Sayiduna Umar (radiAllah ‘anhu) was welcomed by Abu ‘Ubayda and other Sahaba as the Commander of the Faithful should be. Then Abu ‘Ubayda leaned to kiss the hand of ‘Umar; in his turn ‘Umar bent down to kiss the feet of his companion. This is how the companions have been brought up in the school of the Beloved ﷺ, you who reject kissing the hand of your companion.

The Sahaba encouraged ‘Umar (radiAllah ‘anhu) to ride an other mount and to wear appropriate clothing for the greatness of the day and they did not stop to insist until he accepted. He received a great horse and when he rode it, he felt pride and vanity in himself and he immediately dismounted from the horse saying: “Until this day, I did not know that the demons could ride a horse! I must take back my muraqqa’a and my mount”.

Then he headed for the holy city, and while he was walking, he set foot in the mud of a stream near Jerusalem. He took off his sandals and took them with his hand while the other hand was holding the bridle of his mount. Then Abu ‘Ubayda (radiAllah ‘anhu) told him: “O Commander of the Faithful, you set foot in the mud and your wear this Muraqqa’a while those people are princes and kings who pay attention to looks?”

Umar’ hit him on his chest and said: “If someone else than you had said this, O ‘Abu ‘Ubayda, I would have hit his head with this whip.Verily, we were a disgraceful people and Allah honored us with Islam, so if we seek honor from other than Islam, then Allah will humiliate us.”

May Allah be pleased with ‘Umar, the farooq of Islam! Indeed, there is no honor and no spiritual elevation by wearing fabrics which are going to disappear, and the admonition can only be found in a heart in peace and which is totally extinguished in the Divine Presence.

It is in this way that ‘Umar (radiAllah ‘anhu) walked, covered by mud, holding in his hand the bridle of his mount which was riding by his servant.

When the Clerics of Jerusalem saw him coming in this way, they said: “By Allah, here is your companion”.

After four months of siege, they gave him the keys to the city without resistance.
Their learder introduced himself, holding in his hand the keys to Jerusalem and after he gave them, he said:
“According to our book (the exegesis of the gospel), He who will receive the keys to The Iliya’ (Jerusalem) must have three characteristics:
firstly : he will come walking while his servant will be riding his mount.
secondly: he will come the foot covered by mud
thirdly: let me count the number of pieces of fabrics which are sewed to your clothing.”

He counted seventeen pieces (in other versions fourteen or twelve). He said: “and it was the third characteristic. Then He gave to the Commander of the Faithful the keys to Jerusalem.”
“The question is not to wear beautiful clothing and to say: I am. Wear whatever you want but never forget that the clerics of Jerusalem gave the keys to the city to a noble and proud man who was wearing a muraqqa’a”.

Benefits of the Muraqa’a

Benefits of the Muraqa'a

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
و الصلاة و السلام على أشرف المرسلين
و على اله و اصحابه أجمعين

The Muraqqa’a contains lots of benefits in this world and in the afterlife. Imam al Bana al sarqusti (radiAllah ‘anhu) took an inventory of the Muraqqa’a benefits in his book, al Mabahith al Asliya, explained by Sayiduna Ahmad ibn ‘Ajiba (qudissa sirruh) who said in those verses:

The people of Tassawuf choose the Muraqqa’a
because of the characteristics we will mention:
This first (characteristic): it allows (the Mureed) to get rid of pride
It protects against cold and heat
It is cheap and no one who desires this lowly world
will be envious
It debases the ego and it extends the life time
and it also extends the capacity of patience and endurance
Its use is the follow of sayiduna ‘Umar’s example
no one sees those who wear it with Khuchu’
because it makes modest

The Murraqa’a: it is the clothing which is composed of a great number of colored (or not) pieces of fabrics made of wool or fur or leather. The people of Tassawuf prefered this clothing to other clothings because of ten reasons:

The first reason

It allows the one who wears it to get rid of pride and to fight it (pride) with its opposite which is humility. However, if the intention of the one who wears it is to try to pass himself as a pious man, then its wearing is forbidden (Haram). If he wears it to distinguish himself from the furuqara who do not wear it, or if he thinks that wearing the Muraqqa’a would make him better than others, then the obtained effect is the opposite of the desired effect.

The second reason

It is composed in a such way that it protects from heat because the pieces of fabrics are stitched together. It also protects from wold because of the fabrics thickness.

The third reason

It is very cheap because it is made from fabrics which were destined for garbage and it costs nothing for the one who gives them. But if someone choose fabrics of good quality then the Muraqqa’a loses its true meaning and it would no longer give its fruits becoming like any other clothing.

The fourth reason

It does not tempt the thief because of its appearance (not because of its sacred reality). If the Muraqqa’a was stolen to a faqir, thieves would not get any fruits. It means that they will not reach any spiritual Knowledge through the Muraqqa’a. On the contrary, they probably would give it back and they would asked the forgiveness of Allah as it has already be seen. Wearing the Muraqqa’a to looks like other fuqarah is authorized according to Shaykh sidi Ahmad Zarruq (radiAllah ‘anhu).

The Fifth reason

Its wearing takes away lots of evil things because of the respect people have for the one who wears it. People respect him because he looks like good people. Behaving in this way is authorized if the intention is to take away people from he and not to attract people attention. In accordance with the verse: “O Prophet, tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to bring down over themselves [part] of their outer garments. That is more suitable that they will be known and not be abused. And ever is Allah forgiving and Merciful.”
[surah al ahzab/verse 59].

And this is the explanation of the quoted poem verse:

no one who desires this lowly world
will be envious

The sixth reason

Wearing the Murraqa’a among the fellow is a good way to access to the debasement of the ego (nafs). And in this debasement is its death. And in its death is its Life.

In this sense, sidi al Shushtari (radi Allah anhu) said in this verse:

If you want to join us, your death is a condition
do not reach the spiritual fulfillment, he who still remains

In the debasement of the nafs, there is also the loss of dignity and rank, and this is a condition to fulfill the maqam of Ikhlass (sincerity).Through the debasement of the nafs, we access to a life out of sight, forgotten by people, and this is a rest and a security for the one who experiences it, because he will not be recognized for something else than what he actually is. He is not informed about important affairs. If if he is absent, no one notices. And if he is present, his opinion is ignored. In this sense, the Prophet ﷺ said: “There is a master (rabb) whose face is dusty and whose hair is unkempt, who wears tatter clothing and who owns nothing (dhû thimrayn). No one pays attention to him. If he swore by himself on Allah, He would grant him.”

Seventh reason

The wearing of the Muraqqa’a increases the spiritual aspiration and it turns away the mureed from the creation. The opinion of people only brings evil things to the common believers and the one who wears the Muraqqa’a no longer pays attention to the creation: criticism and compliment are equal in his eyes.

A shaykh said to a young man: “Watch out with this Muraqqa’a! because you honor it too much.” the young man replied: “We only honor it for Allah”, the shaykh then said: “How good it is to honor for Allah”.

Eighth reason

It has been said that wearing the Muraqqa’a extends the life time because of the blessings the Muraqqa’a brings to the one who wears it.

In a short period of time, he who wears the murraqqa’a reaches Knowledges and spiritual levels while the one who does not would take years to reach them.

In this sense, Sayiduna ibn ‘Ata Allah iskandari (radiAllah ‘anhu) said in his hikam:

Whoever is blessed in his age, he is able to reap much from the blessing of God in a very short time. So much so, that one cannot explain [the immensity] nor even allude to it.

And the fruits of arifin’s worship is multiplied several times.
It also is said in his Hikam: “No deed arising from a renouncing heart is small, and no deed arising from an avaricious heart is fruitful.
It has also been said: “This is real and this is something special, (the Muraqqa’a) foretells a long life for the one who wears it, and Allah ﷻ is the best Knower.”

Ninth reason

It allows to learn patience and to practice the nafs contradiction, and there are good things known by all.

Allah ﷻ says: Indeed, the patient will be given their reward without account” [surah az zumar/verse 10]
and he says: “but give good tidings to the patient”
[surah baqarah/ verse 155]
and he says: “O you who have believed, seek help through patience and prayer. Indeed, Allah is with the patient.”
[surah al baqarah/verse 153].

Some sahaba (radiAllah ‘anhu) said: “Patience (as sabr) is for faith as the head is the body, and Patience is the mount of those who direct as it is for those who follow”.

Allah ﷻ said: “And We made from among them leaders guiding by Our command when they were patient and [when] they were certain of Our signs.”
[surah as Sajda, verse 24].

The wearing of the Muraqqa’a is also an obstable against major sins (kaba’eer) because the one who is wearinh it cannot approach such things. So the Muraqqa’a is a protection against major sins and the patience needed to wear it is in a manner of speaking equivalent to the patience needed to confront all the major sins.

Tenth reason

The Muraqqa’a is the following of the exemple of the Commander of the Faithful, Sayiduna ‘Umar ibn al Khattab (radi Allah anhu).And the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said in this sense: follow those after me: Abu Bakr and Umar”.

So following them is obeying to the instruction of the Prophet ﷺ  and the one who wears the Muraqqa’a, he follows all the reasons that led ‘Umar (radiAllah ‘anhu) to wear it.

Indeed, ‘Umar (radiAllah ‘anhu) wore a Muraqqa’a: there was between his shoulders thirteen patched pieces of fabric and one of them was made of leather. When he swapped his Muraqqa’a for an other clothing, following the advice of muslims, during the conquest of Jerusalem, he said: “I am denying myself”. Then he took back his Muraqqa’a.

So the wearing of the Muraqqa’a was a choice of ‘Umar (radi Allah anhu). It was also the expression of his modesty and it was not an imposed constraint, because he had money and goods after and even before the Khilafa.

[al Futuhat al Ilahiya fi Charhi l Mabahithi al Asliya].

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